Hekate and Artemis
In literature, inscriptions and iconography alike, Artemis is closely connected with Hekate and often identified with her39. The association is well-established by the time of Hesiod, who gives each the attributes of the other (Hekate kourotrophos: Hes. theog. 411–452, esp. 450; Artemis enodia: Hes. fr. 23a. 26). In the Boeotian poet’s account of the family relationships of the gods, Hekate is Leto’s niece and Artemis’ cousin (Hes. theog. 404–411). Pausanias (Paus. 1, 43, 1), citing the »Catalogue of Women« that is attributed to Hesiod, says that according to the poet Iphigenia became Hekate at the will of Artemis40.
Again, according to Farnell41, Artemis is also identified with Hekate in the world of the mysteries, and it is in this form that she is mentioned in the Orphic Hymn to Artemis 13–14 (cf. Orph. Arg. 1900). Scanning oriental influences on the cult of Artemis reveals her identifica- tion with Bendis, the Thracian goddess of the hunt, who is closely associated or identified with Hekate (Hesych. s. v. Ἀδμήτου κόρη. Cf. also Strab. 10, 3, 10 –20) 42.
By the classical period the traditional association of Artemis with Hekate was very widespread. We find it in Aeschylus (Aischyl. Suppl. 676), in Euripides (Eur. Phoen. 109–110), who has Anti- gone call upon ›potnia‹ Hekate, daughter of Leto, and in inscriptions, such as one from Thasos (IG XII 8, 359) of c. 450 B.C. which cites the name ›Artemis Epaulie Hekate‹43. There is also, we may point out, a 3rd century B. C. inscription from Lagina in Caria44, apparently the original homeland of the cult of Hekate45, which mentions a single priestess of Artemis and Hekate.