SUGGESTIONS AS TO THE LOCALIZATION OF THE HARBOUR OF AYASULUK AND THE ITALIAN SETTLEMENT DURING THE AYDINOĞULLARI DYNASTY FROM A NEW PERSPECTIVE, Şule Pfeiffer-Taş
The main point discussed in this paper is the location of the harbour of Ayasuluk (Theologo, Theologos, Altologuo) which used to have a very important role in international trade during the Aydınoğulları and of the Italian settlement in Ayasuluk.1 Ayasuluk was named by several researchers as Land Ayasuluk, and the area on the seaside as Harbour Ayasuluk.2 The name of this harbour was known in foreign documents as Scala Nova. But neither the location3 of this harbour nor the Italian settlement is known.4
Although the Harbour of Ephesus, which was used in the Hellenistic and Roman era, was silted up and became in operational from the 7th century AD onwards; but it is known that Ayasuluk was one of the most important centres of trade around the Aegean during the 14th century together with Balat (Milet).5 During the Aydınoğulları Dynasty, various routes from the Black Sea coast, Southern and Central Anatolia met in Ayasuluk, which was one of the final destinations of the Silk Road in Anatolia. The storage facilities, shipyards, etc. of a harbour with such important functions must have covered a large area and so there must be architectural proof.
Ayasuluk was captured in 1304 by Aydınoğulları and was their capital under Hızır Bey (~1348-1360) and İsa Bey (~1360-1389). Under Bayezid I (1389-1402) the Emirate of Aydın fell to the Ottomans in the winter of 1389/1390, but after the battle of Ankara in 1402, Timur took Bayezid captive and re-established the independent beyliks. Under Murad II (1421-1426) and more particularly in 1425-1426, Ayasuluk passed under Ottoman control permanently.
It has been determined with certainty through archaeological data and arc- hitectural remains that the settlement in Ayasuluk city during the Aydınoğul- ları period developed within the castle6 and especially to the south and west of the castle. There are 16 districts according to the data in tapu tahrir defterleri of the years 877-882/1473-1477.7 There are districts named küffaran-ı eski hisar and küffaran-i hisar yakası in which non-Muslim people lived; according to the information in tahrir defterleri, these are in the castle area.